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Author: Ritthy Alexander

De verbinding tussen de Amazone-rivier en het Amazone-regenwoud

De Amazone-rivier geeft leven aan de tropische jungle van de Amazone, ‘s werelds grootste jungle. Zonder de toe-eigening van de Amazone-rivier zou het immense grondgebied van dit bos niet kunnen bestaan. Tijdens de jaarlijkse overstromingen krijgen tal van gebieden in de Amazone hun aanvullingen op de onderliggende funderingen van bomen en planten. De supplementrijke organisatie van het vloedwater wordt gewonnen uit een groot aantal van de Amazone-feeders, hoog in het Andesgebergte en uit de Guyana-hooglanden. Vanuit deze ruige zones worden jaarlijks enorme hoeveelheden mineralen en bodems aangevoerd. Deze hulp behandelt de dikke en rijke ontwikkeling van het achterland. Enorme hoeveelheden natuurlijk rijk afval die als voedsel voor bomen worden gebruikt terwijl ze afbreken, worden bovendien opgeslagen in de beken.

Zaden worden bovendien over de waterwegen getransporteerd en verspreid. Deze cyclus is een fundamenteel aspect van het levenspatroon van de tropische jungle en vindt plaats op twee verschillende manieren. Het meest algemeen erkend is het punt waarop de stroom gevallen zaden stroomafwaarts transporteert en ze opslaat in rijpe grond waar ze kunnen groeien. De andere manier is wanneer vissen de zaden eten en ze lozen, af en toe mijlen van waar ze werden gegeten. Het is bijvoorbeeld bekend dat de piranha-meerval baat heeft bij een normale eetroutine van grondproducten die zich in het onderste deel van de stroom nestelen.

De beken werken bovendien als een organisch riool dat houtafval, grond en afval omleidt, terwijl het zich toe-eigent in verschillende delen van het bos of het opruimt naar de oceaan zodra de Amazone-waterweg samenkomt met de Atlantische Oceaan. Volgens deze lijnen wordt al het houtmateriaal in een stabiele staat hergebruikt, wat op dat moment de algemene soliditeit van de hele tropische jungleomgeving verbetert.

De waarheid is dat de waterwegen zo vruchtbaar zijn om het welzijn van de tropische oerwouden op peil te houden dat wetenschappers schatten dat 10% van alle schepselen en 33% van alle vegetatie op de planeet te vinden is in de tropische jungle van de Amazone of de Amazone-rivier. De tropische jungle van het Amazonegebied werd door de vroege pioniers de “Groene Hel” genoemd, omdat de dichte bossen en het benauwde land het in wezen ondoordringbaar maakten. Inderdaad, zelfs geleerden hebben gestreden dat de bossen zo dik en dik zijn dat een moedige aap de schaduw van de wildernis in de lagere regionen van de Andes in kon trekken en door 4000 mijl constant tropisch oerwoud naar de Atlantische zee kon slingeren.

The Mbuti of the Ituri Rain Forest

The Mbuti individuals of Zaire, Africa make their homes in the Ituri Rain Forest, living secretly among its ways, valleys, and streams. Gifted as quiet, clever trackers, creatures and fowls give the protein satisfactory to their eating regimens. As sharp finders of mushrooms, roots, and different plants, they know which harmful vegetation is to be not to be viewed as food-commendable. This ingenious race doesn’t restricted their food sources to the evident nonetheless, as they frequently incorporate termites, nectar, and at times plantains they’re ready to acquire through exchange with Bantu townspeople.

It’s estimated that these dwarf tracker finders might be the underlying African occupants. Around 2500 B.C., the Egyptians recorded the primary known story of an undertaking to the tropical jungle considering the Mbuti the “individuals of the trees”. The Egyptian story journaled the exceptional idea of these cheerful individuals, recounting their singing and moving.

The roaming Mbuti family bunches live in little campgrounds comprising of minimal round cottages worked from adaptable saplings secured with incredible leaves which shed downpour. They surrender their impermanent towns when the gathering chooses to proceed onward to an area with more ample game and vegetation. Each new Mbuti campground is close to the edge of the backwoods, anyway it likewise bears simple admittance to the Bantu town every interesting gathering has an exchange relationship with.

The timberland is essential to the Mbuti’s customs and profound convictions, and food streams with the life of the Ituri. Frequently alluding to the woodland as mother or father, they worship it as the very wellspring of their necessities for endurance. This commitment is considerably more than it simply being an asset for provisions notwithstanding. To the Mbuti, Mother/Father Ituri is a heavenly, holy, living power. Through their customs and functions they request help, offer gratitude, and recognize its endowments. “The Ituri Rain Forest is their ‘place to re-visitation of for wellbeing'”.

With food and kindling in plenitude, there is anything but an entire day’s worth of effort to be done around the Mbuti camps, so these amiable, cheerful individuals invest a great deal of energy singing and narrating. In spite of the fact that untouchables see the Mbuti as a quiet happy individuals, the atmosphere among the families is in some cases very extraordinary at home in the camps. They don’t have only one figure of power so all dynamic is in the possession of the whole gathering. Critical thinking is a significant undertaking and frequently includes contending themselves through to common collaboration.

Through long periods of contact with the dislodged Bantu townspeople (the aftereffect of European colonization and misuse of the Bantu), the two societies have grown rather reliant connections. Since the Bantu fear the woods, the Mbuti’s very much sharpened chasing abilities make them the Bantu’s just hotspot for “distinction nourishments, for example, new meat and nectar”. Being an itinerant people, “starch nourishments from locals’ nurseries make up a huge piece of Mbuti diet “all year.” “Mbuti additionally give different woodland items, for example, covering and development materials, kindling, restorative plants and eatable mushrooms.”

Each survey the different as substandard; the residents consider the To be as rapscallions and frequently attempt to seem legitimate toward them. Anyway paying little mind to any dedication the Mbuti may consent to with the Bantu (be it development, collect, or fishing trips), when their needs are met, their motivations served, the pigmies retreat to the asylum of the backwoods feeling no further commitment to the Bantu.

In spite of the fact that connections are now and then stressed, these two gatherings share a give-and-take presence regardless of their common humble perspective on one another. “Social correspondence” is apparent as certain conditions lead the Mbuti utilize the more various leveled and formalized social structure of resident social orders, while on different events the locals use Mbuti to go about as profound middle people with the backwoods. Bantu townspeople frequently compose wedding feasts and allot the undertakings at burial services. Regardless of the distance away a demise occurs, the body will be taken back to the town for entombment. In like manner, any wrongdoing happening in the backwoods, especially including phlebotomy, is brought by Mbuti to a town court. Locals perceive the Mbuti’s profound solidarity with the woodland, something they feel deficient to accomplish themselves. They enroll the investment of the Mbuti at significant services pointed toward considering forward the productivity of their nurseries and even their factions.

Occasions following the Simba Rebellion, 1964-1970 shows not just the adaptability of the Mbuti’s connections with outside gatherings, yet additionally their weakness and restricted impact over the political fate of the locale. We find that at long last, the Mbuti, similar to the woods itself, are helpless. They have no legitimate rights to the timberland, yet they don’t live totally disengaged in the woodland either; maybe they never have. Cash has gotten more esteemed than the things the woods gives the Mbuti to exchange. Agribusiness and huge scope logging confirmations the objectives for transient abuse and change of the Ituri Rain Forest, making the Mbuti woods masters less and less noteworthy to the territorial society.

Despite the fact that they’ve endure political uprisings, mass butcher by political powers looking to control the horticultural and forested zones of the locale and prevent the them from helping the Bantu look for shelter in the backwoods, the disintegration of the Mbuti lifestyle is presently obvious. Their political abuse and use as modest work has carried the Mbuti closer to the methods of the rest of the world. It isn’t abnormal, for instance, to discover Mbuti employed by neighborhood wood concessions to recognize and cut trees, or for Mbuti to drain nearby natural life populaces in light of a legitimate concern for business dealers. It is Mbuti who guide and scout for unlawful miners and elephant trackers, and it is a similar Mbuti who may direct government warriors and police on attacks of such tasks. It’s no little marvel liquor addiction has become a significant issue among this glad, serene individuals as they desert their old ways.

An Associated Press group climbed into the Congo’s Okapi Wildlife Reserve, expecting to fill in as a fortress against the flourishing bushmeat exchange and business chasing. Anyway upon their appearance they joined a band of Pygmy trackers working day by day to satisfy the needs of the Bantu brokers.

The tropical jungle is home to Africa’s assessed 250,000 to 500,000 Pygmies. In any case, each year, it becomes more modest. As indicated by the United Nations, Africa every year loses 10 million sections of land of trees – a region the size of Switzerland – as a result of uncontrolled logging, mining and floods of travelers frantic for land.

Conrad Aveling, a British natural expert, stated, “the woods simply doesn’t deliver enough to fulfill the need.” And by draining their most valuable asset for momentary increase, he stated, the Pygmies “are sawing off the branch on which they’re sitting.”

Or on the other hand, as Congo master Terese Hart stated, “They’re overexploiting the timberland such that’s making their own specific manner of living incomprehensible.”

Zaire Njikali, an old Pygmy family pioneer would not like to discuss the change clearing the landmass, or the risks of over-chasing. “The timberland will consistently be there,” he says. “For the timberland to vanish, for the creatures to vanish, the world would need to end first.”

However even today, despite the infringement of human progress, somewhere down in the Congo’s wild and excellent Ituri Rain Forest, the significant formal molimo custom may in any case be seen. At night hours, Mbuti men assemble cycle a fire moving and singing through the molimo trumpet, “making creature sounds and delightful music” that are important for the custom. At the point when the stately molimo is brought to the celebration by the youngsters, they circle the edge of the camp, ensuring the singing and moving around the deepest fire is generally extreme, sufficient, and prepared for the passage of the trumpet. Regardless of whether celebrated to express gratefulness to the woods itself as all that is acceptable in their lives, to fix clamor, or even fix a terrible episode, for example, passing, the molimo is an euphoric endeavor. Enduring from one day to a month or more, through this antiquated custom the Mbuti look to turn out to be more “focused”, adjusted, and requested as they celebrate.

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